- Kokumin girei
- The 'People's Rite'. A simple ritual initially comprising a moment's silence with head bowed in honour of the war dead. It was classified along with shrine visits as non-religious and therefore a civic duty. It had developed by 1945 into a practice of turning towards the imperial palace, singing the national anthem and reading an imperial rescript which was a compulsory element of every Buddhist, Christian, etc. service of worship.
A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Brian Bocking.