Ritsuryo
   A system of government based on governmental codes, both prohibitive (ritsu) and administrative/civil (ryo), first developed in the time of Shotoku Taishi (regent from 593­622) by scholars and monks who had been sent to study in Sui China, and from which the Imperial family first derived its ritual calendar (see Engi shiki). The codes were set down in the Taiho Ritsuryo of 701 and revised in the Yoro Ritsuryo a few years later. Shotoku Taishi's seventeen-article constitution of 604 and the Taika ('great change') reforms from 646 exemplify the ritsuryo-type approach heavily influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism and Yin-Yang (onmyo) thought. The earliest ritsuryo document was the Omiryo of 662; the extant written sources date from the early eighth century. The 'Jingiryo' laws covered the deities, and regulations for imperial ceremonies and annual festivals. The ritsuryo system established the emperor as a sacred being, a manifest kami with priestly as well as governmental responsibilities for the community (see Saisei itchi), raising the status of the hereditary monarch over the people to that of a divinely-proclaiming tenno (a Taoist term for the highest heavenly deity) in place of the earlier ten'o (heavenly king). The system affirmed the mutual dependency of imperial law (obo) and the Buddha's law (buppo), and the compatibility of Buddhist divinities and kami (see e.g. Honji-suijaku). The ritsuryo system was not formally replaced until 1885, although Japan was actually ruled from the ninth century onwards not by emperors but by the Fujiwara regents and then by the Kamakura and Ashikaga shoguns or their deputies. The broad principles of the ritsuryo system functioned more or less effectively until the end of the Heian period, which marks the end of what is usually termed 'ritsuryo-type government'. After the disunity of the 'warring states' period, in the late fifteenth century the ritsuryo ideology was in practice replaced by the hoken system of government in the Tokugawa period. Some of the reforms of the Meiji period claimed to emulate aspects of the ritsuryo system (e.g. the re-establishment of a jingikan), though without its Buddhist basis.

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  • Ritsuryo — Ritsuryō (jap. 律令 ritsuryō) ist ein historisches Rechtssystem in Japan. Es basierte auf der Philosophie des Konfuzianismus und des Chinesischen Legalismus. Das politische System in Übereinstimmung mit ihm heißt Ritsuryō sei (律令制). Kyaku (格) oder… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ritsuryō — (jap. 律令 ritsuryō) ist ein historisches Rechtssystem in Japan, wobei ritsu das Straf und ryō das Verwaltungsrecht meint. Es basierte auf der Philosophie des Konfuzianismus und des Chinesischen Legalismus. Das politische System in Übereinstimmung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ritsuryo — Ritsuryō Le ritsuryō (律令) est l ancien système de lois du Japon médiéval basé sur le confucianisme et sur le légisme venus de Chine. Le système politique qui en découle est appelé ritsuryō sei (律令制). On désigne par kyaku (格) les amendements du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ritsuryô — Ritsuryō Le ritsuryō (律令) est l ancien système de lois du Japon médiéval basé sur le confucianisme et sur le légisme venus de Chine. Le système politique qui en découle est appelé ritsuryō sei (律令制). On désigne par kyaku (格) les amendements du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ritsuryō — nihongo|Ritsuryō|律令 is the historical law system based on the philosophies of Confucianism and Chinese Legalism in Japan. The political system in accord to Ritsuryō is called Ritsuryō sei (律令制). Kyaku (格) are amendments of Ritsuryō, Shiki (式) are …   Wikipedia

  • Ritsuryō — Le ritsuryō (律令) est l ancien système de lois du Japon médiéval basé sur le confucianisme et sur le légisme venus de Chine. Le système politique qui en découle est appelé ritsuryō sei (律令制). On désigne par kyaku (格) les amendements du ritsuryō et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ritsuryō — El texto que sigue es una traducción defectuosa o incompleta. Si quieres colaborar con Wikipedia, busca el artículo original y mejora o finaliza esta traducción. Puedes dar aviso al autor principal del artículo pegando el siguiente código en su… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ritsuryo-System — Ritsuryō (jap. 律令 ritsuryō) ist ein historisches Rechtssystem in Japan. Es basierte auf der Philosophie des Konfuzianismus und des Chinesischen Legalismus. Das politische System in Übereinstimmung mit ihm heißt Ritsuryō sei (律令制). Kyaku (格) oder… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Japanese castes under the ritsuryō — were the two main castes of the classical Japan caste system. When the Ritsuryō legal system was starting to be enforced in Japan at the end of the 7th century, it included, like in Tang China, a division between those two major castes. The term… …   Wikipedia

  • Castes Japonaises Du Ritsuryō — Ryômin (良民) et senmin (賤民) étaient les deux principales castes du système de caste du Japon médiéval. Le système du Ritsuryō, instauré au Japon à la fin du VIIe siècle était basé sur une division en deux de la société, comme dans la Chine… …   Wikipédia en Français

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