- One of the names used for pre-1945 war memorials built in school grounds and other local centres by private and public bodies throughout Japan, especially after the Russo-Japanese war. Spirits of the war dead were usually enshrined with both Shinto and Buddhist rites. The memorials were the lowest level of the shokonsha and gokoku jinja pyramid which had its apex in the Yasukuni jinja. Most were destroyed following the Shinto Directive.
A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Brian Bocking.