- State Shinto
- An analytical concept used since 1946 in Shinto studies in at least three different ways. (1) According to some Shinto theologians State Shinto (kokka shinto) was a relatively short-lived phenomenon which began in 1900 with the establishment of a Shrine Office (Jinja kyoku) within the Home Ministry and ended completely under the Occupation in 1945. (2) Other scholars mean by 'State Shinto' the 77 years of overt state sponsorship of Shinto from 1868 to 1945, during which period all Japanese religions were eventually brought under the control of the state and adherence to Shinto in the sense of obedient devotion to the Emperor was promoted as a 'non-religious' civic duty. (3) Even more broadly, the term State Shinto may be used to mean an ideology which promotes Shinto as integral to the state and natural to Japanese people of whatever religion, i.e. Shinto nationalism, a view which originated within the National Learning (kokugaku) movement, flourished from 1868—1945, persists today and is reflected in unofficial government sponsorship of Shinto and may be rekindled in the future.
A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Brian Bocking.
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