- Tsuzoku shinto
- Popular Shinto. Another name for folk Shinto or minkan Shinto applied particularly to popular religious movements incorporating 'Shinto' elements which arose before the Meiji restoration and accompanied intellectual developments such as kokugaku. The 'popular Shinto' movements were not specifically 'Shinto' but have been appropriated by modern Shinto as part of its heritage since they developed outside institutional Buddhism and promoted coherent religious values compatible with modern Shinto among ordinary people. Examples include the hotoku movement of Ninomiya, Sontoku, the shingaku movement of Ishida, Baigan and the teachings referred to as tsuzoku Shinto inspired by Masuho, Zanko (1655-1742). Though 'popular' religion tends to be looked down upon by representatives of institutionalised religions including Shinto purists, most Japanese religion is of this character and many Japanese engage in some way in tsuzoku-type religious practices which combine at least the 'three teachings' of Buddhism, Shinto (or Taoism) and Confucianism.
A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Brian Bocking.